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A Guide To Oruro Carnival Bolivia
Saturday 13th February 2021
Tuesday 16th February 2021
- 1 What is the Oruro Carnival?
- 2 Where is the Oruro Carnival?
- 3 When is the 2020 Oruro Carnival?
- 4 How do they celebrate carnival in Oruro?
- 5 What is the history of Oruro Carnival?
- 6 Why is the Oruro carnival celebrated?
- 7 Oruro Carnival Characters
- 8 The Main Parade
- 9 The Famous Dance of the Devil – La Diabla
- 10 The 2020 Oruro Carnival Program
- 11 Where is the 2020 Carnival of Oruro Parade Route?
- 12 How to get to Oruro?
- 13 How to get around in Oruro?
- 14 Where to stay in Oruro?
- 15 Things to do in Oruro
- 16 What is the Festival of the Virgin of La Tirana?
- 17 When is the Festival of the Virgin of La Tirana?
- 18 Where is the Festival of the Virgin of La Tirana?
- 19 What is the history of Fiesta de La Tirana?
- 20 How do they celebrate La Tirana Festival?
- 21 Dancing for the Virgin
- 22 Dancing for the Devil
- 23 The Feast Day of Virgen Del Carmen
- 24 Saying goodbye to the Virgin
- 25 How to get to La Tirana?
- 26 Accommodation for the Festival of La Tirana
Don’t forget to follow us @_carnivaland
What is the Oruro Carnival?
Every year the city of Oruro is home to one of the most famous carnivals in the world. Oruro Carnival is over 200 years old and considered to be a very important religious carnival so much so that in 2001 UNESCO declared Oruro Carnival a “Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity”.
Oruro Carnival attracts about half a million people and is Bolivia’s most famous tourist attraction. Oruro Carnival is one of the most unique carnival experiences you can have and one heck of a fiesta.
Where is the Oruro Carnival?
Oruro or Uru Uru is a small mining city located in the arid Altiplano region of Bolivia that has a population of 250,000. Oruro sits a dizzying 4000 meters above sea level. This little mining town is actually home to one of the world’s most famous carnivals celebrations.
When is the 2020 Oruro Carnival?
When is Carnival in Bolivia? Oruro Carnival’s main celebrations start the Saturday prior to Ash Wednesday. The 2020 Oruro Carnival dates will begin on Saturday, 21st February and ends on Monday, 24th February.
How do they celebrate carnival in Oruro?
Every year the usually sleepy town of Oruro is brought to life hosting a very unique carnival that is a mix of pagan/indigenous ceremonies and Catholic symbolism. Oruro Carnival features traditional folk dancing, extravagant costumes, lively music, beautiful handcrafts and plenty of partying.
What is the history of Oruro Carnival?
The origins of Oruro Carnival dates back long before the Spanish conquistadors arrived. The ancient town of Uru Uru, the pre-Hispanic name for Oruro, was actually a religious destination for the Indigenous people of the Andes.
The locals would come to worship Pachamama (mother earth) and their ancient God Ito. They held grand celebrations for Ito which is how Oruro Carnival originated.
When the Spanish arrived in Oruro back in the early 1600s, they discovered the locals mining the land for silver. The Spanish took away their land and used the local people for labour. They also attempted to convert the locals to Christianity, banning their religious traditions and practices.
The Indians refused to renounce their beliefs continuing to worship Ito in secret, under the guise of Catholic rituals. The Catholic priests encouraged the native people to perform their traditional dances and music, so long as they coincided with Catholic holidays.
By the mid-18th century the Andean rituals had entirely morphed into Catholic observances which created the modern Oruro Carnival celebrations as we know them.
A century after Bolivia gained independence from Spain socialism spread throughout Bolivia and Indigenous culture was viewed as being an ideal model for society, as well as a matter national pride. More traditions became based on ancient Andean culture.
Why is the Oruro carnival celebrated?
Oruro Carnival commemorates an ancient story about a miracle that occurred in one of the mineshafts and is still honoured today during carnival. Legend has it that a Virgin once took pity on a fatally injured man by helping him reach his home near the silver mines of Oruro before he died.
The miners who had discovered the dead man’s body in the mine found him with an image of the Virgin of Candelaria hung above him. Some say this story was concocted by the Spanish to convince the natives to worship a virgin.
Oruro Carnival has observed this event ever since it occurred and now honor the Virgen de la Candelaria which translates as Virgin of the Mineshaft. The natives changed their original celebrations of Anata into a three-day festival worshipping the Virgin Mary, held on the same dates as their original celebration. Many of the dances of Oruro Carnival are all based on the Virgin.
Oruro Carnival Characters
Oruro Carnival is a mix of Catholic and Pagan customs, so the Catholic Virgin and Devil icons mix with the Native Pagan religion of Pachamama and El Tio. Pachamama is Mother Earth and the Pagans saw her as a giving goddess.
El Tio is the most recognised Oruro Carnival Character. He is a malevolent character that is said to be the Uncle of the Mountains. During carnival, El Tio transforms into the Devil. Indigenous Miners believed that El Tio owns the mines and oversees their safety.
So, in order to not anger him for stealing his precious metals, during the carnival the miners dance for him. They also leave him many gifts of food, alcohol, cocoa and cigarettes. Other Carnival Characters that you will see during carnival include:
- The Incas
- Spanish Conquistadors
- Archangel San Miguel
- Tobas Inca Warriors
- Llama Herders
- Caporales – which were slave owners
- Morenos – African who were enslaved by the Spanish
The Main Parade
Carnival Saturday is the day of the Main Parade which can last for 20 hours! It covers a four-kilometre route. The parade features around 50 groups that are made up of 20,000 dancers, 150 bands and 10,000 musicians who all participate in the parade.
The parade is led by the Archangel San Miguel who is followed by devils, bears, pumas, monkeys and condors who are all symbols of Uru mythology. The chief devil Lucifer and China Supay the devil woman, attempt to seduce San Miguel with their dance.
The 50 dance groups will perform 18 different dance performances. Some of the most well-known groups are the Diablas, Kantus, Kullawada, Suri Sicuris, Potolo, Tinku, Tobas, Caporales, Llamerada, Morenada and Waca Waca. The groups all portray different aspects of life in the high Andes like silver mining, agricultural cycles, or pagan and catholic religious themes.
The Famous Dance of the Devil – La Diabla
When the parade commences two plays will be acted out the first about the Spanish conquest and the second about San Miguel’s battle with good and evil. This is one of the most famous performances of carnival, a folk dance called a Diablada.
Diabla or Dance of the Devils that has remained unchanged since colonial times and it is one of the things that carnival in Oruro is famous for. La Diablada as they say in Spanish is an incredibly colourful spectacle filled with stunning costumed and masked devils, who perform amazing choreographed routines, that essentially enact the victory of Archangel St Michael over Lucifer.
The dance is a representation of the Indigenous People converting to Christianity. It begins with the entrance of El Tio and sees several hundred dancing masked devils follow him.
The 2020 Oruro Carnival Program
To help you organise and plan your carnival celebration better here is the 2020 Oruro Carnival dates and events that will occur and events to help you plan your trip better:
Anata Andina 2020
- Date: Thursday, 20th February 2020
- Place: Carnival Parade Route
- Time: 8:30 am.
The Andean population in Bolivia very much perceive reality as everything being one. Therefore, they live in harmony with the earth, cosmos, and other animals. Two days before carnival locals give thanks to Pachamama for providing them with agriculture production.
In a celebration known as the Anata Andina people all over Bolivia come to participate in this tradition, showing of their native customs.
Oruro Festival of Bands 2020
- Date: Saturday, 15th February 2020
- Place: Civic Plaza Oruro
- Time: 9:00am
Oruro Carnival starts with a ceremony dedicated to the Virgin of the mineshaft where marching bands play to greet the Virgin. The bands feature traditional Bolivian folk music.
Day dedicated to El Tio & Challa
- Date: Friday, 21st February 2020
- Place: Oruro
Carnival Friday is dedicated to El Tio and the mine sites that surround the city. On Friday night a soiree takes place in dedication of El Tio covering the whole carnival route way into the wee hours of the morning. This is followed by a serenade to the Virgen del Socavón that features numerous performances from folk groups and bands.
The Challa is a ritual offering to Pachamama for the crops and spiritual and material wealth that has been granted. The Challa sees earth being sprinkled all over workplaces, shops, businesses etc. A fireworks show is also put on.
- Date: Saturday, 22nd February 2020
- Place: Potosí Esq. Aroma
- Time: 07:00 am
Today is the main parade which starts at 7am with the great Socavon Virgin Pilgrimage that goes all day and night along the carnival route in Oruro city. Today is when you will see over 50,000 performers in 48 Folkloric Ensembles.
It is a majestic folkloric parade with the participants wearing the most colourful costumes in a display of culture, heritage and tradition displaying the most incredible choreography and music.
- Date: Sunday, 23rd February 2020
- Place: Corner of Potosi Street and Aroma Avenue
- Time: 06:30 am
On Carnival Sunday there is a traditional dawn celebration that takes place around the Socavón Sanctuary, with the participation of the Oruro carnival bands. The festivities continue along the same parade route with more dancers and musicians taking part. It is a much smaller parade yet still incredibly colourful with lots of jubilant crowds.
Devil’s Monday – Day of the Devil and Moreno
- Date: Monday, 24th February 2020
- Place: Socavón Sanctuary
Monday starts with a mass and special blessing at the Socavon Virgin Sanctuary. On this carnival day sees the traditional ‘farewell to the Socavon Virgin dances’ put on. There are numerous choreographed performances put on by different dance groups all around the city.
Farewell of the Carnival of Oruro 2019
- Date: Tuesday, 25th February 2020
- Place: Various neighbourhoods of Oruro
Shrove Tuesday is all about family and family reunions. There is also a traditional challa, a ceremony giving thanks to Pachamama.
- Date: Sunday 10th February 2020
- Place: Various neighbourhoods of Oruro
The following Sunday is a much smaller procession for the kids. They will dress up in traditional folkloric costumes and perform traditional dances. This is a cute parade and it gets the next generation involved in carnival.
Dia del Agua
- Date: Monday, 2nd March 2020
- Place: Oruro City
The Monday that follows Ash Wednesday is the Dia del Agua (Day of the Water). On this day there is a massive water fight. Water balloons are thrown at passer-byers and water guns spray other people. It is done to symbolise good things to come!
It’s lots of fun but watch out as gringos are the main target! There are plastic ponchos available for purchase from street vendors.
Where is the 2020 Carnival of Oruro Parade Route?
The 2020 Oruro Carnival procession maintains the route of previous years. It will begin on Bolívar Street and passes through the Plaza 10 de Febrero square. From Bolivar Street it will run down La Plata, Adolfo Mier, Presidente Montes, La Petot, Civic Avenue and Junín street.
The parade runs for more than 40 blocks and along the parade there are plenty of grandstands where you can pay for a seat. Plaza de Armas or the finishing point are the most popular places to view the parade.
The parade finishes at the Santuario del Socavón, the parade will enter the church to pray and express their devotion to the Virgin of Socavón. The final procession lasts for over 15 hours and sees thousands of dancers and musicians perform for over 15 hours.
How to get to Oruro?
You can fly directly to Oruro with domestic flights to Oruro’s Aeropuerto Juan Mendoza which is located 5km east of the city centre. Boliviana de Aviacion flies daily to Cochambamba a 30 minute flight and then continues on to Santa Cruz 2.5 hours aww. Most international flights go to La Paz which has a major international airport. To get a quote for a flight click here.
There are several bus companies that connect Oruro with different Bolivian cities. If your flight lands in lap Paz you can get to Oruro which would take around 4 hours by bus.
- La Paz to Oruro, 229 Km, 3 – 4 hrs
- Cochabamba to Oruro, 210 Km, 4 – 5 hrs
- Potosi to Oruro, 310 Km, 5 – 6 hrs
- Santa Cruz to Oruro, 683 Km, 18 – 20 hrs
- Uyuni to Oruro, 314 Km, 7 hrs
One of the most comfortable ways to travel to or from Oruro City is by train!. There are two different trains that go from Oruro towards Uyuni, Atocha, Villazon and Tupiza. The most comfortable train is the Expreso del Sur which departs at 3:30pm on Tuesdays and Fridays. The Wara Wara is the other option and this departs on Sundays and Wednesdays.
How to get around in Oruro?
The best way to get around carnival is to walk. There is so much going on and so many people out and about that it is actually just easier to walk around. Of course, if your accommodation is not too close to the parades there is local transport and plenty of taxis.
Where to stay in Oruro?
Oruro is a major Bolivian city and there are plenty of hotels in the city that cater to all levels of comfort and budget. But during carnival Oruro receives thousands of visitors so the prices are higher, and many hotels reach full occupancy, so it’s best to book early. Also, many families will rent out rooms in their homes during carnival.
Check out some accommodation deals here.
Things to do in Oruro
Oruro is a stunning city with lots of natural beauty and historical monuments. There is also a delicious local cuisine. The city has an incredible marketplace which is great to do some shopping. It is also a very modern city with nice bars, restaurants and cinemas. In Altiplano which is the area surrounding Oruro there are numerous archaeological sites.
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What is the Festival of the Virgin of La Tirana?
Fiesta de la Tirana is an annual celebration that takes place in La Tirana, which is located in the Tarapaca Region of northern Chile. This celebration occurs to honor the Virgen del Carmen. This celebration is the biggest localized religious event in Chile and attracts around 250,000 visitors to this tiny village of 1500 inhabitants.
The visitors come to dance, hear music, pray and pay homage to the Virgen del Carmen, who is the national patron saint of Chile. Over 207 religious brotherhoods from Arica to Copiapó, participate in this event. This is a beautiful celebration that attracts visitors from not just all over Chile, but from all over the world!
Because this celebration is so large, and the town only has 1500 inhabitants, during the celebration, community-based systems of commerce, housing and healthcare are put in place. Law enforcement is brought in from surrounding areas. Furthermore there is a mandatory dry law on during the celebration, with alcohol checkpoints at every entrance, to avoid public drunkenness.
When is the Festival of the Virgin of La Tirana?
The celebration begins on July 10th at 10pm and finishes on July 19th. There are 10 days of celebration. The dance celebrations are organised around the feast day of the Virgen del Carmen,
Where is the Festival of the Virgin of La Tirana?
The celebration takes place in La Tirana, Chile. La Tirana is located in the Tarapaca Region in Northern Chile, and is about 45 miles from Iquique, a coastal town on the pacific.
What is the history of Fiesta de La Tirana?
The story about the origin of The Festival of La Tirana dates back to 1540, when an expedition led by the discoverer of Chile – Diego de Almagro, arrived in the area. It was there that they met an Incaican Princess named Huillac Humu, who due to her hostile attitude towards the Spaniards was known as La Tirana or the tyrant in English
But La Tirana ended up falling in love with one of her Spanish captives named Almeyda. She was so in love with him that she even wanted to marry him and become a Christian. Her community was so outraged that they killed both the princess and her lover.
Around 1650 Antonio Rondon built a hermitage next to the cross of her grave. In the 18th century a little town and church was created in that location. Today there is a Museum – Museo de La Tirana located in front of the church. The lovers remain buried in the place where the festival is celebrated.
While today La Tirana Festival is a celebration that is done in the name of the Virgen del Carmen, it still has many traditions that stretch back centuries to the indigenous Andean people. The masks, costumes, music and dance all have historical significance. Descendants of these indigenous persons still travel to the festival to make promises to the saint and to receive blessings.
How do they celebrate La Tirana Festival?
La Tirana Festival is celebrated with lots of religious ceremonies, local instrumental music performances, dance performances and parades. The celebrators dress in colorful traditional clothing and the events are an incredible combination of European, Mestizos, Creoles and Indian culture.
The festival has about 250,000 visitors who come to make offerings, promises, give thanks and pray to the Virgen del Carmen and receive blessings. She is the protector of Chile and believed to be the guardian of the armed forces, navy and police. Believers make their promise to her and are obliged to complete their promises.
Dancing for the Virgin
Dancing plays a major role in the celebration of Fiesta de La Tirana. Dance groups known as bailes come to dance before the Virgen del Carmen, who is located in the sanctuary at La Tirana. Dancing before the Virgin is a very emotional experience. There are about 200 official dance groups from all over the country, who come to announce they have returned to fulfil their promise to her.
With so many dance groups, the performances run for days, and are scheduled around the clock. Every different dance group is assigned a specific entry time to see the Virgin, and they have 20 minutes to dance before her. The temple doors officially open on July 10th, and the bailes and pilgrims dance before the Virgin from July 11th until Jul 14th.
But before visiting her they must first dance at the plaza located at the entrance to the town, then in front of the statue of Cruz del Calvario (Calvary Cross), where a priest formally welcomes them and blesses the group. It is a sensory mosaic filled with lots of color, sound, energy and movement. The atmosphere and energy is electric and the central plaza is filled with thousands of dancers.
The dancers are dressed in the most beautiful costumes with lots of glitter and color. They enter the temple accompanied by their band and banner. Romantic melodies of vintage ballads, boleros and waltzes fill the air and where the songs of one dance group ends, another begins. The dancers offer their blood, sweat and tears to the Virgin.
Dancing for the Devil
One of the most important parts of the festival is the Danza de los Diablos, which in English means the Dance of the Devils. This was brought to Chile by Bolivian salt miners.
Throughout the festival you will see many people wearing fearsome costumes and masks, which are done to chase the demons away. The demon masks have bulging eyes, curling horns and bright colours.
The Feast Day of Virgen Del Carmen
You could say that the eve and feast day of the Virgen del Carmen, is like New Year’s. The eve of the feast is a special time. In the morning, the bishop celebrates Mass for the representatives of he armed forces. By 9pm at night, the square has filled up with large crowds who eagerly await midnight and the official start of the feast of the Virgen del Carmen.
At midnight the celebrations begin with people waving balloons and lights, orange lanterns float into the sky, the band plays music and firework displays surround the city. The dance groups take turn dancing and singing, and everywhere you look people are socializing and in good spirits. People stay up all night and dance groups continue performing in the square well after sunrise.
At 9am a major event takes place in the square. The statue of the Virgin, a smaller one from the temple, is lowered into the square. Hundreds of colored ribbons are attached to the base of her pedestal which are thrown to the audience, who hold them and sing while she is lowered. This is then followed by Mass.
At 2:30pm, a procession of the image of the Virgin parades its way through the streets, followed by statues of St Joseph who is her husband, and of Jesus. At each block, dance groups have the opportunity to sing to the Virgin, walking backwards, in front of her, so that they don’t turn their back to her.
Big crowds line the streets and follow the procession throwing confetti and shouting “Viva La Virgen”. The procession goes on for about seven hours, before it returns back to the temple. Inside the sanctuary some associations have been given the honor to sing before the larger statue of the Virgin.
Saying goodbye to the Virgin
While the dance groups don’t leave La Tirana until July 19th, the farewell song and dance to the Virgin, begins midnight after the 16th July. The goodbye dances can be even more emotional than the entrance dances, you will often see dancers crying. They are done in the same order as the entry dance and continue for 24 hours a day until the 19th July, except during Mass.
One week after the groups have departed La Tirana, they gather together in their home cities for a fiesta chica. This is a follow-up dance to La Tirana. Its purpose is to bring the devotion and joy of La Tirana, back to their own streets.
How to get to La Tirana?
The majority of people will travel to La Tirana from the coastal city of Iquique which is about 45 miles from La Tirana. You can fly to Iquique from Santiago in about 2.5 hours, and then take a taxi to La Tirana, which will take around 40 minutes. You can also reach La Tirana by road from the northern cities of Calama, Arica and Antofagasta.
Accommodation for the Festival of La Tirana
It is super important that you book your accommodation well in advance because there are limited hotels. There are also some private accommodation rental options and many locals will open their houses for the celebration. A lot of temporary housing is installed during the celebration for many of the dance groups.
Check out some accommodation options here.
For more information about tours, things to do, sightseeing tours, day trips and more click here.